Agriculture has always been celebrated as the primary sector in India. Even to this day, in spite of the Indian economy opening up to the world and height of globalization, close to 70% of the population still depends on agriculture for its livelihood. Besides providing food to nation, agriculture consumes labour, contributes to market of industrial goods and earns foreign exchange.
Seasonal nature of agriculture: Generally during the sowing and harvesting period, the ruralites are fully employed and the period between the post-harvest and before the next sowing they remain unemployed.
Vagaries of Monsoon: As Indian agriculture largely depends on monsoon, and due to unpredictable monsoon season, agriculture cannot be planned properly. Drought or famine or flood adversely affects agriculture.
Sub-division of land: Due to fragmentation of land agricultural produce falls and land is reduced to an uneconomic holding.
Traditional method of cultivation: Lack of improved methods of farming as well as absence of skilled labour hampers agricultural output. Aversion to the use of fertilizer, lack of adequate irrigation facilities and lack of capital to procure modern agricultural tools, seeds and manures affect agricultural produce.
Disappearance of traditional occupation:
In the past few decades, small industries failed to compete with large scale industries, as a result cottage industries are gradually disappearing.
Disorganisation of agriculture: Indian agriculture system is extremely disorganized and diversified. It follows an inverted economics because the Indian farmer has to willingly invest more to get less.
Pitfalls in rural education: The present system of education undermines manual labor. Educated people develop aversion for physical labor. Hence the rural youth after the completion of formal education looks for a sedentary job in a government office or a private firm. They are both unwilling and unable to adopt agriculture as their occupation.
Poverty: Poverty and unemployment are interlinked. Because of poverty the ruralites have no resource for investment. Consequently they remain unemployed